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A message from
Kate Burch
OFRW Political Education and
Legislative Chair
A Guide to Elections
A friend who teaches Civics to a homeschool group asked me if I would speak to her class about elections. I accepted eagerly, as I thought it would be a good learning experience for me, as well as a nice opportunity to help prepare the students to become voters. Having worked at the polls as a precinct election official and polling location manager for a number of years, I am familiar with the procedures for processing voters and ensuring the integrity of the election. I was more fuzzy on details about allocation of delegates; what goes on at the National Conventions; and the way the Electoral College works. It was indeed an interesting exercise to prepare for the presentation. I thought that the document I wrote as a handout might be something that OFRW members could use as a refresher and quick reference.


How are Candidates Selected?
    Rules vary by state, and the Secretary of State for each state is responsible for setting and applying the regulations and laws regarding state, county, and local elections in that state. County Boards of Elections are responsible for receiving and approving petitions for candidacy, and for running elections.
    If there are two or more applicants to become the candidate of a particular political party, the candidates will be on the ballot for a primary election. The primary election will then determine who will be the candidate for each party.
    Some races, such as those for judges, are non-partisan, meaning that the candidate does not run as a member of a political party. For these races, there may be several candidates, not identified by party, on the ballot.

What is the Difference between a primary election and a caucus?     Primaries and caucuses are methods that political parties use to select candidates for a general election.
    A primary is a state-level election in which party members vote to choose a candidate affiliated with their political party. Party candidates selected in a primary then run against each other in a general election. Thirty-four U.S. states (including Ohio) conduct primary elections. In Ohio’s 2016 primary election, there are four parties with candidates who have met the requirements to run, so there are four different ballots. Each voter is asked when signing in which ballot he or she prefers. That information is recorded, and that voter is then officially affiliated with that party until the next primary election, when each voter will again be asked to designate a choice of ballot.
    A caucus is a local meeting in which registered members of a political party in a city, town, or county gather to vote for their preferred party candidate and conduct other party business. Caucuses are typically used in combination with a state convention to elect delegates to the national nominating convention for presidential elections.
    The caucus is the oldest method of choosing delegates in the U.S. Sixteen states hold caucuses to determine political party candidates.

Who May Vote in a Primary or a General Election?
    Since 1971, with ratification of the twenty-sixth Amendment to the Constitution, U. S. citizens who are at least eighteen years old may register to vote. Until 1971, the minimum age for voting in the United States was twenty-one. Registration in Ohio must be accomplished one month prior to election day. In Ohio, a citizen who is seventeen years old, but who will be eighteen years old at the time of the general election, may vote in the primary election, but only for nominating candidates, not for issues. There has been a recent controversy about Ohio’s law and regulations for 17-year-old voters. Seventeen-year-olds, according to the Ohio Secretary of State, may not vote in the primary for the delegates who will nominate the presidential candidates. This is because the delegates are elected, and the law states that 17-year-olds may vote solely on the nomination of candidates. (Note: as I write this, the situation is perhaps still fluid. I read this morning that a judge has ruled that 17-year-olds must be permitted to vote for the presidential contenders.)

How are national candidates determined for the Presidential election?
    A person who is interested in being a candidate for federal office must apply to the Federal Elections Commission. In times past, political party bosses had the primary role in determining the candidates that would be designated by their states’ delegates at the national nominating convention. Over time, primaries and popular participation have largely supplanted the handful of party bosses in determining who will be the Democratic and Republican nominees for the general election.
    In primary elections and caucuses, by selecting one’s preferred candidate, a voter is actually electing a delegate to the party’s national nominating convention, held in the summer before the election. Both 2016 conventions will be held in July; the Democratic Convention will be in Philadelphia, the Republican in Cleveland.
    The parties differ in the way they allocate and select delegates to the National Convention. Each contender selects delegates (and alternate delegates) who will go to the convention if that person is still in the race by that time. Delegates are typically people who work to support and assist a candidate in his or her campaign, and who are believed to be loyal and to have no potentially disqualifying or embarrassing “baggage.”     Some states allocate delegates proportionally, and some states are “winner take all” meaning that all delegates are turned over to the contender who wins a plurality of the vote. Ohio is now a “winner take all” state.
    Republican Party: In order to win the 2016 Republican presidential nomination, a contender must win 1,237 delegates of the roughly 2,472 delegates expected to be present at the Convention. Republicans have three types of delegates: congressional district delegates, at-large delegates, and Republican National Committee members. Republicans assign three delegates to each congressional district in a state; how strongly a district has supported GOP candidates in previous elections does not impact the district’s number of delegates. Each state has ten at-large delegates, plus three Party officials who vote at the convention. States also are awarded bonus delegates, based upon the political party affiliation of state and federal elected officials. For example, Ohio has five bonus delegates: one due to our having a Republican governor, one by virtue of electing one Republican to the U.S. Senate; one for having elected Republicans to 50% or more of their U.S. House delegation in the last election; one for having a Republican majority in one chamber of the state legislature; and one for having elected a Republican majority to both chambers of the state legislature.
    Democratic Party: The process is more complicated for the Democratic Party. In order to win the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination, a contender must win 2,383 delegates’ votes out of the 4,765 expected to attend. There are two basic types of Democratic convention delegates: pledged and unpledged. An aspiring candidate wins a share of the pledged delegates in a primary or a caucus if he or she receives at least 15 percent of votes cast. Pledged delegates are expected to support the contender to whom they are allocated.
    The Democratic Party allocates Congressional district delegates proportionally, based on the results of the primary or caucus in a congressional district. At-large delegates are allocated proportionally based on the statewide results in the primary or caucus. Pledged party leaders and elected officials are delegates by virtue of their office, and can include statewide elected officials, state legislators, local elected officials or party leaders.
    The Democratic Party also has so-called Superdelegates, including distinguished party leaders and elected officials, who are seated automatically and choose whom they want to vote for. This practice has contributed to the criticism that the Democratic Party does not run elections democratically, as in the case of Hillary Clinton gaining more delegates than her share of the popular vote because of her having the support of superdelegates.

The United States Presidential Nominating Convention
    The formal purpose of the convention is to select the party’s nominee for President; and to adopt a statement of party principles and goals known as the platform, and also to adopt the rules for the party’s activities.        
    Over time, and due to changes in election laws and the way in which political campaigns are run, the conventions have become, for the most part, scripted and ceremonial affairs, serving to rally voters to support the party’s candidate. In 2016, it will almost certainly be that for the Democratic Party. Due to the prolonged and fractious nature of the Republican presidential race this year, their national convention may be more interesting.
  Conventions are typically held in major cities, which compete vigorously to be the site chosen, due to the significant economic impact expected.
    The party platform that is produced in ordinarily a refinement of fairly longstanding ideological statements. It provides a statement of principles that is not binding on either the party or candidates.
    Voting is ordinarily perfunctory, with no doubt as to which contender will be the party’s nominee. Pledged delegates ordinarily vote as expected, though they are not legally bound to do so. There has been drama, such as in the 2012 Republican National Convention in Tampa. Here, Ron Paul, the Libertarian Party choice, would not pledge his delegates to Mitt Romney, the choice of the Republican Party power structure, and so he was prevented from speaking and rules were changed making it more difficult for an insurgent candidate to garner delegates. Some people believe that there was resulting disaffection of Ron Paul supporters that led them to stay home on election day, thereby hurting the Republicans. Since the 1970’s a single ballot has been sufficient to select the nominee. Each delegation announces its vote tallies, accompanied by some boosterism of their state or territory. The Vice Presidential candidate has, in recent decades, been nominated by “acclamation” rather than by the roll call of the states used for the Presidential nomination.
    If, by the time of the convention, no single Republican candidate has won a majority of the delegates, a “brokered convention” would result, in which a candidate would be selected through political horse-trading and lesser candidates pressuring their delegates to vote for one of the front-runners. We may see such a scenario this year.
    Ordinarily, losing candidates during the primary season will release their delegates and encourage them to vote for the winning nominee so as to build and demonstrate party unity.

General Election
    The general election is always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, in years divisible by four. Absentee voting originated as a way that people who were infirm or housebound could exercise the franchise. In recent years, absentee voting has been promoted as a means of increasing voter access and turnout. Absentee ballots are completed and mailed or hand-delivered to the Board of Elections. In Ohio, absentee ballots must be received at the BOE by the closing of the polls on elections day. Every registered voter in Ohio is mailed an application for an absentee ballot several months prior to a general election. When a voter appears at the place of election, the voter list will indicate whether that person has requested an absentee ballot. If yes, that person may only vote provisionally, meaning that the voter uses a paper ballot, rather than the voting machine, and that ballot will be counted only if it is assured by examination at the Board of Elections, that the voter had not mailed a marked absentee ballot.    Active-duty military stationed away from their home and U.S. citizens living abroad, must request a ballot to mail to their Board of Elections. A controversial rule mandates that military people must re-register to vote each year. This is viewed by many as a means of suppressing the military vote, which is usually conservative.
    Early voting is another recent innovation, with voters invited to go to the Board of Elections and vote beginning a month prior to the actual election day. This is another way on increasing turnout. In the case of a primary election, both early voting and absentee voting cause many votes to be cast in vain. For example, many people have voted for presidential contenders who have dropped out of the race since they cast their votes.
    When a voter presents at the place of election, he or she is asked to state their name and address, and is asked for some identification. In Ohio, which has fairly strict voter ID law, there are several forms of acceptable identification:
  1. Government-issued photo ID that is current and includes the residential address, except in the case of A military ID, which does not indicate the residence.
  2. A utility bill, bank statement, government check or paycheck that contains the correct name and current Address of the voter.
  3. Some other forms of government documents, which are current and contain correct name and address.
    If the voter shows satisfactory proof of identification and is listed as a registered voter in the voting precinct in which the polling place is located, he or she is allowed to vote as a regular voter.
    A voter must vote in the precinct in which he or she resides. Voters who show up at the wrong polling place are directed to their home precinct.
    Voters who do not meet the requirements for voting as regular voters are allowed to vote provisionally which, again, means that they will mark a paper ballot. The ballot is placed in a special, sealed envelope and it will be examined at the Board of Elections to determine whether it is valid and can be counted.

The Electoral College
    The U.S. Electoral College is the institution that actually elects the President and Vice President. Citizens do not directly elect these officials; instead, voters directly elect designated intermediaries called “electors” who almost always have pledged to vote for particular presidential and vice presidential candidates and who are themselves selected according to the particular laws of each state. There are 538 electors in total. This includes one for each member of Congress; one for each Senator; and, by the Twenty-third Amendment, 3 to the District of Columbia.
    Except for the electors in Maine and Nebraska, electors are elected on a “winner take all” basis, meaning that all electors are pledged to the presidential candidate who wins the most popular votes in the state. Maine and Nebraska select electors according to the popular vote in each Congressional district, and the remaining two (for the two Senators) by statewide popular vote.
    The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes, currently 270, wins the election.
    The use of the Electoral College, rather than election by popular vote is argued unendingly. Arguments against it mainly revolve around the possibility of electing a president who does not capture the majority of the popular vote; the possibility that voters will lack enthusiasm, since their state will have the same number of electoral votes whether their turnout is high or low; and the risk (almost never realized) that electors will not vote for the candidate endorsed by the people. Defenders of the Electoral College cite its contribution to national cohesiveness because it requires a distribution of popular support to elect a President; its enhancement of the voting power of minority interests; its contribution to political stability by encouraging a two-party system; and its role in maintaining our system of federalism in government and representation.

You may download a .pdf of the above article HERE

Judicial Voter Guide issued
Click HERE to find out about the new judicial voter guide that will feature candidate profiles, information about what judges do, descriptions about the duties of different courts, and brief videos of former judges explaining how the court system works.

Click HERE to view the first quarter issue of Victory's Voice -
the OFRW Newsletter.

Click HERE to view the latesst issue of the Roundtable

Click HERE to view the flipbook of what the NFRW has accomplished during the past two years.

Click HERE to view the latest Capital Connection

Click HERE to downlad a high definition version of the NFRW membership video. Click HERE to view the video.
Great Ideas for
Meetings, Projects and Communications

Please click HERE for some great information for leading your club -
provided by the National Federation of Republican Women
If your club does not have a Facebook page or group, it would be a great idea to find someone in your club to start and maintain one for your club. If your club does have a Facebook page and it is not listed in the links under the "On The Web" tab of the menu bar, please email your Facebook Group name by clicking HERE.
Some Tips for Starting a New Club Year
  • Cotact Campaign Chair April Cohagen-Gibson to schedule a Voter Registration seminar in January or February
  • The Awards form is a good basis for chosing programs for the year
  • Click the speakers tab on this website for some good program ideas
  • Call the district representative for each of the state level elected officials to be a guest speaker at one of your meetings
  • Get together with a neighboring club for an activity
  • Ask the OFRW to print cards for you to send out inviting new members
  • Browse other clubs' Facebook pages, webpages and websites for ideas on what each is doing
  • Club Presidents - be sure to try to have a conversation with your District Vice-president at least once every quarter. They are a good link for you to access a multitude of resources.
  • Work with Membership Chair Janet Kushlan on ideas for increasing your club's membership.
Darke County Republican Women's Club
 Regular Monthly Meeting

6:30 p.m., Monday, April 11
Chestnut Village Center/ of the Brethren Retirement Community

R. Kelly Ormsby III – Darke County Prosecutor
Matt Aultman - Candidate for County Commissioner

You will need to make your dinner reservations
 by noon on Thursday, April 7th 
Call Wavelene at 547-6477 or e-mail by clicking HERE
Canfield Republican Women's Club 
to hold Quarter Auction

  Great FUNd Raiser!

Click HERE to download a printable .pdf of the above flyer






Ashland Women host Spring Brunch

 Xenia Republican Women's Club
Publishes Newsletter

Click HERE to download a printable .pdf file of the above newsletter
Erie County Republican Women
Publish Club Flyer

Click HERE to download a printable .pdf file of the above flyer

Everything you might
want to know about
all aspects of the
Voting Process

  • Register to vote
  • Update your voter information
  • View your sample ballot
  • Learn how to vote absentee
  • Find your County's Board of Elections

Click HERE for a
List of all the
 Presidential Primary

    -- Dates
    -- Delegates per election

Click HERE to follow current delegate count for each nominee

New Volunteer Portal for the Cleveland

To let the Convention Organizers know that you would be interested in volunteering click HERE

 Interested in attending the 2016 Republican Convention?
For a special offer from the
Ohio Republican Party
Click HERE
Hats off to ─

 Members Winning
Their Primary Elections

The following OFRW members won Primary Elections:

Anielski, Marlene—State Representative-6th House District
Bailey, Cynthia—Clinton County Clerk of Courts
Gingerich, Sharon—Geauga County Recorder
Hagan, Christina—State Representative-50th House District Hawk, Daphne—Franklin County Recorder
Kennedy, Shelly—Lucas County Court of Common Pleas
King, Angie—Mercer County Recorder
Nix, Nancy—Butler County Auditor
O'Donnell, Colleen—Franklin County Court of Common Pleas
Pike, Cindy—Darke County Clerk of Courts
Rockey, Patti—Williams County Recorder
Schacht, Lisa—State Representative-20th House District
Smail, Sue—Wayne County Commissioner
Stacy, Holly—Seneca County Commissioner
Wilt, Melanie—Flax Clark County Commissioner
Yarger, Eva—Van Wert County Prosecutor
Yoder, Martha—State Representative-64th House District

We apologize if anyone was missed, the above are the names who have been submitted. If there were other OFRW Members who won their primary elections, club Presidents, please click HERE to submit the names and candidacy won by anyone who was omitted.

The OFRW gives a “ Hats Off” and salute to our members and/or clubs serving  within the OFRW and their home communities. We value their time, talent and contributions in making Ohio a great state in which to live and prosper. If you, or members of your club, would like to give a “Hats Off” salute to a member please click HERE to email the information.

Here's a GREAT Community Service
project for your club!

Help maintain the Governor's Mansion Gardens

From Ohio's former First Lady Hope Taft:

"I realize that I have been remiss in not including the OFRW in the happenings at the Governors Residence.

I have attached several things:
  • A form encouraging people to contact us if they want to volunteer in the Heritage Garden as a Governors Gardeners or  as a docent or guide  (I go up every other Wednesday from May through October to work with the garden volunteers.) Click HERE
  • A general form for membership in the Friends. Click HERE
  • Information on the summer trip we have planned to go to Lakeside August 16-19 to hear lectures and see special natural areas in NW Ohio.  It's going to be a fun and relaxing time. Click HERE
  • A schedule for the summer. Click HERE
The Friends completely fund the Heritage Garden and those things within the Residence that the state does not repair -- and it is in dire need of financial resources, so I appreciate your spreading the word,linking to the Friends website and doing what you can to help.

Thanks so much, 

Hope Taft, chair
Heritage Garden Committee"
Medina Republican Women
Host Last Friday Lunches

Republican Women of Hancock County's
Deb Seng

Gives Introductions of Honored Guests
Congressman Bob Latta's District Event


OFRW has membership display at event:
OFRW Central District Vice-president
Mary Lou Saliaris
Judge Craig Baldwin
 (Fifth District Court of Appeals) at
Coshocton County LIncoln Day Dinner

A great program idea --
Rivers Unlimited

Click HERE to download a printable .pdf of the above
Just some of the events your club could participate in/help with. Contact: President Aaron Rourke at 513-761-4003 or email him by clicking HERE. He is one of many listed on the Speakers page of this website - click HERE
Delaware County Republican Women's Club
hosts RNC Field Organizer Scott Morgan and
OFRW President Lyn Blis

Delaware County Field Organizer for the Ohio Republican Party Scott Morgan talks about the RNC/ORP voter registration program.
Miami County Republican Women's Club
Sets Upcoming Schedule

From the MCRWC Program Chair:
We have an exciting Spring ahead of us! 

Tuesday, March 29th - Andy's Gardens.  Meet at 6:30 at the Troy location for a discussion on spring planting and growing.

Thursday, April 28th -  Hayner at 7:00.  We will have a presentation by Deputy Dave Duchek and Prosecutor Tony Kendall on the heroine problem in Miami County.

Saturday, May 7th at 11 AM, we will meet at Georgia Armstrong's "Arrowston" bed and breakfast, 1220 Park Avenue in Piqua for a tour and lunch. It is $20 per person and President Ann says the food is really good.The bed and breakfast has been voted No. 1 in the State by Ohio Magazine. Please RSVP before May 1 to President Ann Baird or me (Stacy Wall) for this event so food can be planned.

Also in May is a Meet the Candidates night for the 8th Congressional District.  It will be May 19th at 7:30 at the Troy Jr. High.  This is open to everyone.

Let me know if you have any questions.

Stacy Wall
Ottawa County Republican Women's Club
to have Mothers' Day Legacy Luncheon

The Ottawa County Republican Women's Club is planning a Mother's Day Spring "Legacy Luncheon." Gather all the important women in your life (of all ages) and plan to attend the inspiring Spring event on May 7th at Catawba Island Club. Of course, men are always welcome. A special guest has been invited and more information will be forthcoming. Have a blessed day!
Jill Stinebaugh, President

Click HERE to download a printable .pdf of the above flyer 


Ottawa County Republican Women's Club to be Honored

    The Ottawa County Republican Women's Club has been invited to the Salvation Army's "Thanks Celebration" on Friday, April 15th to say "Thank You" for all that we contributed in 2015. 
     Luncheon will begin at 11:45 a.m, with thanks celebration at 12:15. This will be held at the U.A.W. Local 12 Hall, 2300 Ashland Avenue, Toledo.
   OCRWC members planning to attend, please contact Renee Claycomb before April 8th to be added tot he RSVP count due that day. 
Hocking County Women's Republican Club
Unveils New Webpage


Click HERE to visit the HCWRC Webpage
Licking County to Hold Meeting
Click HERE to download printable .pdf file of the above flyer
Click HERE to download printable "Talking Points" for meeting
Club Treasurers - Please Remember

As your dues come in from members, please send them to the OFRW with the completed membership reporting form. The form may be found in your President's Leadership Manual or online by clicking HERE. As your club collects dues for 2016—please also remember that your club treasurer is to submit $5 for OFRW and $10 for NFRW membership for each person in your club. The ONLY people to whom this does not apply are men — and women who pay their primary membership dues through another Federated Club.
Calling all OFRW Members

Will you please take photos at your club events and submit them to the OFRW Webmaster -- so they may be featured on the homepage. We'd like to see some different faces here.......... And, other clubs would like to see what you are doing! Please include list of names and brief description of the photo. Also, any information you would like to submit for 2015's second edition of the OFRW Newsletter, please do so! Click HERE to submit information. THANKS!

!!  We're on Facebook   !!
Click each title to access the page:

Ohio Federation of Republican Women
OFRW  Club Presidents
OFRW Political
OFRW Central
OFRW Northeast
OFRW Northwest
OFRW South
OFRW Southwest

Each of these pages are to be used to share ideas, thoughts, achievements, congratulations, etc. Please make use of them. You may just find a solution when you are faced with a problem! Check into your district page and find out what information your District Vice-president has to offer to the clubs in your district!
Don't miss using these great membership building tools:
Membership Display Posters
to use at Fairs, Festivals and Republican Events
The OFRW Membership Committee has several posters available for your club to use as part of a membership building campaign. These may be used in conjunction with membership cards coordinated with the poster and also a sign-up clipboard.

For more information regarding the various themed membership campaigns,
click HERE to contact Membership Chair Janet Kushlan 
What does the Republican Party stand for, believe in, and fight for???
??  Have you ever read the Republican Party Platform  ??
Click HERE to download a printable .pdf file.
Please let us know how OFRW can be of service to your club ─ email President Lyn Bliss at: [email protected] ─ call/text: (937) 423-2299. Thank you!

National Federation of Republican Women Facebook

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